Black adolescents see more substance use in mainstream media but seem less responsive to it than other U.
Black-oriented media may be more personally relevant to them. To determine smoking exposure separately for black-oriented BSME and mainstream MMSE movies and assess their longitudinal relationships with smoking among black and other-race adolescents.
Two-wave — national cohort survey of nonsmoking at baseline U. Outcome was smoking initiation. A prospective relationship was found between exposure to smoking in movies and smoking Sexy black girls smoking.
Among black adolescents in the U.
Parents, practitioners, and producers should be aware of these potential influences of media on black teen viewers. Black youth in the U. This finding has raised Sexy black girls smoking because media use has implications for time spent in other activities 78 and exposure to violence, sex, and substance use in media predict subsequent aggression, 910 sexual precocity, 311 alcohol consumption and smoking initiation, respectively.
Surgeon General to conclude that the effect of movie smoking exposure on smoking initiation is causal 16 ; it would appear that black youth are at particular risk. However, relationships between media exposures and risk outcomes observed in predominantly white samples of adolescents may not hold Sexy black girls smoking black youth.
Thus, these moderation effects may be at least partly due to measuring media exposures that are not psychologically relevant for black youth.
Preference for black-oriented media among black audiences is understandable from social-cognitive 22 and social identity perspectives. A more interesting possibility is that exposure to smoking in mainstream movies MMSE; the bulk of all exposure, featuring predominantly white characters and concerns actually has no effect on black youth, whereas exposure to movie smoking in black-oriented movies BMSE; less plentiful, but likely more psychologically relevant relates to smoking initiation controlling for covariates.
The findings for black character smoking provide preliminary support for this hypothesis. This last aim is informed Sexy black girls smoking the work of scholars conducting research with black audiences, 30 who note differing psychological responses to mainstream versus black-oriented media.
Prior research shows black teens are exposed to more smoking from both black and white characters than are white teens, but exposure to white character smoking far exceeds exposure to black character smoking.
This study includes a larger sample of black-oriented movies than previous studies. The current authors hypothesize that there are higher levels of BMSE among black versus other viewers. Among nonblack viewers, both types of exposures will predict initiation.
The current study involves data from the 5th W5 and 6th W6 waves of the Dartmouth Media Study, an ongoing longitudinal survey of adolescents in the U. W6 provides the most recent data available. Analyses were conducted in Race was determined by self-identification; of never-smokers, identified themselves as exclusively white, as exclusively black, as Hispanic regardless of race.
Another indicated something other than Hispanic ethnicity or exclusively black or white race. Using holistic judgment based on knowledge of the films, they indicated whether the film was black-oriented targeted toward a black audience ; mainstream not targeted toward a black audience ; or unknown to them.
To quantify smoking in each movie, a separate group of professional coders watched each movie and recorded occasions in which tobacco appeared on screen, using previously reported procedures.
Each adolescent received a unique list of titles randomly selected from the larger set of movies, stratified by rating and whether it contained black character Sexy black girls smoking or drinking median number of black-oriented movies per survey was ten.
Survey data were combined with coding data to compute number of smoking occurrences each child saw in black-oriented and mainstream movies. For each type of movie, occurrences for movies that the child Sexy black girls smoking seeing were summed, and then divided by the number of occurrences in the movies black-oriented and mainstream the child had been asked about; this proportion was multiplied by the total number of tobacco occurrences in the 95 black-oriented and mainstream films.
Smoking initiation by W6 was assessed using a single item: Have you ever tried smoking cigarettes, even just a puff? Covariates included child demographics i.
As the hypotheses relate Sexy black girls smoking differences in the effects of various types of exposures within racial groups, not the differences between the groups, dose—response curves for MMSE and BMSE were estimated separately for black and nonblack youth, by including dummy variables for both black and nonblack groups and excluding the constant term to prevent multicollinearity. In addition to these intercepts black and nonblack dummy variable indicatorsthe model included linear product terms of black and nonblack dummy variables with MMSE and BMSE and quadratic effects product terms of black and nonblack dummy variables with MMSE squared and BMSE squared of movie smoking exposures within each group.